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; 10 . . . 1 , , . . 1 (. 1 2) ., . . . (, , ..), , .. . , , .. ( NH4F) . . . , , . . . 30 . 3. . . . ( , . 4 ).
. 1. I
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||堠|堠|
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|,/(㷷C)|0,51(0C)|񠠠|
|,/㠠|79,69||
|,/㠠|677||
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
||9,1105(0C)||
|,1/C|||
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|,/(귷C)|4,99103||
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|:|1,309(3C)||
|ࠠ|1,3104(3C)||
|ࠠ|||
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
||109(0C)||
|,11||11/|
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|,|1010(11C)||
|1||32/|
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|,/젠|91010(5C)|.䠠|
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|,/2:|2,5|䠠|
||1,11|䠠|
|󠠠|0,57|䠠|
|󠠠|||
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|,砠|1014|䠠|
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
||3||
||||
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|蠠|11,4421,3|0,0361|
|頠||/(C)0273,16|
|,/||ʠ|
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. 1 /()=4,186 l (k (); 1 -1-1=100 /; 1 /=10-3 /; 1 /( ()=418,68 /( (); 1 =10-1 (/2.
. 2. , 1
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|ࠠ|ࠠ||||堠|
|||||ࠠ||
||------------------------------------------------------------------|,/2|,|,䠠|
||㠠|%|.2|%||/䠠||
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|蠠|2,41022|98,95|16,1|10,9|1,48105|2,51018|9580|
|||||蠠||||
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|䠠|21020|0,83|21|14,1|9,52103|61018|3075|
|||||蠠||||
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|䠠|3,51019|0,14|26|7,2|1,34102|3,31019|1,05|
|||||ࠠ||||
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|⠠|1,01019|0,04|72,4|14,2|14,5|21019|0.30,5|
|||||蠠||||
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|蠠|7,61018|0,03|63,5|18,7|14,3|1,91018|4,07|
|||||ࠠ||||
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|䠠|1,71018|0,01|510,1|100|3,3101|3,91020|4103|
|||||蠠||||
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. . . . , , . , . . ; ; , , . . . 106 , . . , , , (. ). . (0,45) ( 0,95) 72 . 2 65% , . , , , . . ., .
. II, III V , 170. 150 . (. Ic), , . . , . . . Ic 120 . . . . I, , .
. IV . V. . IV , , . VII 20 /2 (200 . /2). . VII 400. . VIII . VII. . IX , . III . , . .
. . (1900) . ( 1912). 60- . , , . . 3 4 . .
. H2O, (. 2). 4 , . . I, Ic, VII VIII , . . 10928'. . VII VIII , 2 ( . Ic), . . II, III, V VI . . VI, VII VIII 2 . . , . , , , (-, ), , . . . 6 . , 2 , . . I, III, V, VI VII ( - Ic), , . , . . . II, VIII IX .
. 3.
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|蠠||Ը||ΗΗΠ⠠|
|||ࠠ|||
||||,||
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|I||P63/mmc|2,76|109,5|
|Ic||F43m|2,76|109,5|
|II||R3|2,752,84|80128|
|III||P41212|2,762,8|87141|
|V||A2/a|2,762,87|84135|
|VI||P42/nmc|2,792,82|76128|
|VII||Im3m|2,86|109,5|
|VIII||Im3m|2,86|109,5|
|IX||P41212|2,762,8|87141|
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. 1 A=10-10 .
. 4.
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||-,|,|,/||
||Ѡ|/2|2||
|-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|I|0|0,1|0,92|94|
|Ic|130|0,1|0,93||
|II|35|210|1,18|3,7|
|III|22|200|1,15|117|
|V|5|530|1,26|144|
|VI|15|800|1,34|193|
|VII|25|2500|1,65|~150|
|VIII|50|2500|1,66|~3|
|IX|110|230|1,16|~4|
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. , , , . ( , , , , , , , , . .). , , , . (, , , , ..) - (, , .), ( , , , ..). , . . . , , (. , ).

.: . ., , ., 1955; . ., , . ., ., 1967; Eisenberg D., Kauzmann W., The structure and properties of water, Oxf., 1969; Fletcher N. H., The chemical physics of ice, Camb., 1970.
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